HELOS: Heterogeneous load scheduling for electric vehicle-integrated microgrids

Gaoxiang Li, Di Wu, Jiefeng Hu, Yong Li, M. Shamim Hossain, Ahmed Ghoneim

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


With increasing concerns about worldwide environmental conditions and rapid development of renewable energy technologies, microgrids have been regarded as a promising solution to reduce the burden of infrastructure-based power systems. However, due to the intrinsically intermittent features of existing renewable energy, along with random residential behavior patterns, unpredictable plugged-in or unplugged actions of electric vehicles (EVs) and the time-varying price of electricity, it is challenging for microgrid operators to efficiently perform load scheduling and energy management. In this paper, we propose an online algorithm to conduct cost-aware scheduling of EV loads and energy supplies for microgrids. We formulate this problem into a stochastic optimization problem with the objective of minimizing the time-average cost of a microgrid, including the purchase cost of electricity from the main grid, the cost of charging and discharging batteries, renewable harvesting costs, and life-cycle greenhouse-gas emission costs. To solve this problem, the key idea is to exploit the dynamics of the price of electricity to conduct battery charging and discharging operations, renewable energy harvesting, and schedule EV loads properly. Our method is based on the Lyapunov optimization technique, which has low computational complexity and only requires limited prediction of price information. The theoretical analysis of our algorithm confirms that the proposed strategy can achieve optimality with explicit bound. By conducting extensive real-data driven simulations, we demonstrate that our proposed algorithm can achieve much lower cost and be more eco-friendly than other alternative solutions.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7776902
Pages (from-to)5785-5796
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2017


  • electric vehicle (EV)
  • Energy management
  • load scheduling
  • microgrid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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