Grouping Rules for Effective Legend Design

Zhe Qin, Zhilin Li

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


The legend is an important map component. Legend design is one aspect of map design, which forms an important topic in cartography. From the literature, it is found that only one study was dedicated to the building of cartographic rules for effective legend design, and no systematic investigations into the building of grouping rules for proper determination of the grouping of legend features (symbols + text descriptions) had been carried out. This study is therefore devoted to the building of grouping rules based on Gestalt laws. An experimental evaluation of these developed rules was designed and conducted. The results indicate that a legend designed by considering these new rules is significantly more efficient than the others violating these rules.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)36-47
Number of pages12
JournalCartographic Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2017


  • grouping rules
  • legend design
  • map design

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth-Surface Processes


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