Under the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Conferences of the Parties (COPs), the United Nations Climate Change Conferences have been held yearly to evaluate the progress in dealing with climate change since 1995, when COP 1 was held in Berlin, Germany. COP20, in Lima, Peru in December 2014, reached an agreement that urged all countries to achieve their greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets by 31 March 2015. This information is called an Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC). With the deadline of 31 March 2015 already passed, only 35 of the 193 countries had published their INDCs. After solid and united global efforts, from 30 November to 12 December 2015, COP 21 was held in Paris, France, when, in a historical breakthrough and milestone toward securing the future Earth, a global agreement on the reduction of climate change was agreed upon by representatives of more than 193 countries in attendance. According to the COP21 Organizing Committee, the agreement was to limit global warming to well below 2°C compared to pre-industrial levels. By 12 December 2015, 160 INDCs had been submitted, and on February 04, 2016, Nepal confirmed the 161st INDC, which together represented 188 countries. The requirement that the agreement would become legally binding is that at least 55 countries, which jointly represent at least 55 percent of global greenhouse emissions, have to sign the agreement in New York between 22 April 2016 (Earth Day) and 21 April 2017, and also adopt it within their own legal systems. Readers may find some detailed information from the sixth United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Emissions Gap Report, which was available in 2015 .
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Science Applications
- Computer Networks and Communications
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering