Graded bulk-heterojunction (G-BHJ) with well-defined vertical phase separation has potential to surpass classical BHJ in organic solar cells (OSCs). In this work, an effective G-BHJ strategy via nonhalogenated solvent sequential deposition is demonstrated using nonfullerene acceptor (NFA) OSCs. Spin-coated G-BHJ OSCs deliver an outstanding 17.48% power conversion efficiency (PCE). Depth-profiling X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (DP-XPS) and angle-dependent grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD) techniques enable the visualization of polymer/NFA composition and crystallinity gradient distributions, which benefit charge transport, and enable outstanding thick OSC PCEs (16.25% for 300 nm, 14.37% for 500 nm), which are among the highest reported. Moreover, the nonhalogenated solvent enabled G-BHJ OSC via open-air blade coating and achieved a record 16.77% PCE. The blade-coated G-BHJ has drastically different D-A crystallization kinetics, which suppresses the excessive aggregation induced unfavorable phase separation in BHJ. All these make G-BHJ a feasible and promising strategy towards highly efficient, eco- and manufacture friendly OSCs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)