Three-dimensional GPR imaging requires evenly and densely distributed measurements, ideally collected without the need for ground surface markings, which is difficult to achieve in large-scale surveys. In this study, a guidance system was developed to guide the GPR operator to walk along a predesigned traverse, analogous to the flight path design of an airborne drone. The guidance system integrates an auto-track total station unit (ATTS), and by estimating the real-time offset angle and distance, guidance corrections can be provided to the operator in real time. There are two advantages: (1) reduced survey time as grid marking on the ground is no longer needed and (2) accurate positioning of each traverse. Lab and field experiments were conducted in order to validate the guidance system. The results show that with the guidance system, the survey paths were better defined and followed in terms of feature connectivity and resolution of images, and the C-scans generated were closer to the real subsurface world.
- ground penetrating radar
- virtual guidance system
- 3D GPR image
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Control and Systems Engineering