“Give and take”: A social exchange perspective on festival stakeholder relations

Raymond Adongo, Seongseop (Sam) Kim, Statia Elliot

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

46 Citations (Scopus)


Based on social exchange theory, this research seeks to establish the differences between festival stakeholder relations in terms of trust, control, dependence, and altruism. A total of 1105 participant surveys were collected at six festivals in Ghana across eight stakeholder groups including organizers, government authorities, visitors, volunteers, sponsors, and media. The results indicate that organizers have the highest level of trust for other stakeholders whereas media have the lowest. For other stakeholders trust levels are similar, suggesting that festival organizers capitalize on mutual stakeholder trust to broaden collaboration. Regarding dependence, volunteers showed the least level of dependence on other stakeholders, suggesting that organizers work to more deeply engage their volunteers to improve relationships. This multi-dimensional assessment of social exchange theory in the festival field contributes to our understanding of dynamics among festival stakeholders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)42-57
Number of pages16
JournalAnnals of Tourism Research
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2019


  • Altruism
  • Control
  • Dependence
  • Festival
  • Social exchange
  • Stakeholders
  • Trust

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Development
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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