X. Tong, Wen Zhong Shi, D. Liu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic research


对GIS中手工地图数字化中的数据误差进行了系统分析和各种分布检验,认为数字化数据误差可能服从p≈1.6的p-范分布。在此基础上,探讨了数字化数据误差处理的p-范平差,并与最小二乘平差进行了比较。||Error analysis and processing for spatial data is one of the key issues in GIS research. In order to present the optimal error processing model, the characteristic and distribution of the error in GIS data must be studied thoroughly in the first place. However, it should begin with capturing methods for spatial data. In this paper, error distributions, error tests and error processing of GIS spatial data from manual digitization are studied systematically. According to the statistical characteristics of the random error, the probability density functions of the normal, the Laplace and the p-norm distribution are derived based on the different axioms. It is proved on the theoretical point that the random errors do not always follow normal distribution but are likely to other distributions such as Laplace distribution, p-norm distribution, etc. Based on this idea, repeated manual digitization experiments are carried out by several operators under the same circumstance. By eliminating the effect of the systematic and gross errors, various statistical distribution fitness tests including Kurtosis and Skewness tests, Chi-Square test and Komogorov test for the random error in manual digitization are conducted. It is found that the random error in manual digitization obeys not the normal and Laplace distribution but the p-norm distribution (p≈1.6). Based on this, least p-norm estimation for adjusting digitized data is analyzed, and the results are discussed Compared with least square estimation. It can be seen that the least p-norm adjustment is better than least square adjustment for digitized data processing in GIS.
Original languageChinese (Simplified)
Pages (from-to)79-84
Number of pages6
Journal武漢測繪科技大學學報 (Journal of Wuhan Technical University of Surveying and Mapping)
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2000


  • Error distribution
  • Error tests
  • Error processing
  • Map digitization
  • GIS

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