Generating Third Harmonic Vacuum Ultraviolet Light with a TiO2 Metasurface

M. Semmlinger, M. Zhang, M.L. Tseng, T.-T. Huang, J. Yang, Din-ping Tsai, P. Nordlander, N.J. Halas

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

81 Citations (Scopus)


© 2019 American Chemical Society.Dielectric metasurfaces have recently been shown to provide an excellent platform for the harmonic generation of light due to their low optical absorption and to the strong electromagnetic field enhancement that can be designed into their constituent meta-atoms. Here, we demonstrate vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) third harmonic generation from a specially designed dielectric metasurface consisting of a titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructure array. The metasurface was designed to enhance the generation of VUV light at a wavelength of 185 nm by tailoring its geometric design parameters to achieve an optical resonance at the fundamental laser wavelength of 555 nm. The metasurface exhibits an enhancement factor of nominally 180 compared to an unpatterned TiO2 thin film of the same thickness, evidence of strong field enhancement at the fundamental wavelength. Mode analysis reveals that the origin of the enhancement is an anapole resonance near the pump wavelength. This work demonstrates an effective strategy for the compact generation of VUV light that could enable expanded access to this useful region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8972-8978
Number of pages7
JournalNano Letters
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 11 Dec 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • anapole
  • metamaterial
  • metasurface
  • third harmonic generation
  • titanium dioxide
  • Vacuum ultraviolet

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Generating Third Harmonic Vacuum Ultraviolet Light with a TiO2 Metasurface'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this