Gender Invariance of Family, School, and Peer Influence on Volunteerism Scale

Ben Law, Tan Lei Shek, Man Sze Ma

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: This article examines the measurement invariance of Family, School, and Peer Influence on VolunteerismScale (FSPV) across genders using the mean and covariance structure analysis approach. Method: A total of 2,845 Chinese high school adolescents aged 11 to 15 years completed the FSPV scale. Results: Results of the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) are consistent with those of previous studies and support the four-factor model of the FSPV scale in each gender. Multiple-group CFA demonstrates the gender invariance of factor pattern, factor loadings, factor covariances, and intercepts of the measured variables across samples. The empirical findings indicate that male adolescents perceive more influences on volunteerism from families, schools, and peers than female counterparts. Both groups perceive extrinsic influence to be similar. Conclusion: The FSPV scale is gender invariant and can be used in assessing the perceived influence of social systems on volunteer service participation among Chinese adolescents for both genders.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)139-146
Number of pages8
JournalResearch on Social Work Practice
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015


  • adolescence
  • Chinese
  • gender invariance
  • volunteerism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • General Psychology


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