Functions of code-switching among Iranian advanced and elementary teachers and students

Mohammad Momenian, Reza Ghafar Samar

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


This paper reports on the findings of a study carried out on the advanced and elementary teachers' and students' functions and patterns of code-switching in Iranian English classrooms. This concept has not been adequately examined in L2 (second language) classroom contexts than in outdoor natural contexts. Therefore, besides reporting on the findings of the study, the paper also argues for bringing the use of L1 (first language), more narrowly code-switching, into the classroom and emancipating both teachers and students from the shackles of traditional approaches to teaching which were strongly against the process of code-switching and considered it as a debilitative behavior in the classroom. To this end, 60 Iranian students and 30 Iranian teachers were selected to come up with the data of this study which were sought through two sets of questionnaires, one for the teachers and the other for the students. Each one of the participants was given the questionnaire and some time to fill it in based on what he/she has remembered from their classes. Findings revealed that the elementary teachers and students, for most of the functions, ranked higher than their advanced counterparts, which is still quite indicative of the practice of the traditional methods in the classroom. The reasons why it turned out so is in detail explained, and the pedagogical implications are also accordingly examined.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)769-777
Number of pages9
JournalEducational Research and Reviews
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 5 Oct 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Code-switching
  • Students
  • Teachers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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