From brand identity to brand equity: a multilevel analysis of the organization–employee bidirectional effects in upscale hotels

Andy Xiaofeng Liu, Cathy H.C. Hsu, Daisy X.F. Fan

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: This study aims to examine the mechanism of how hotel executive brand identity influences physical facility quality, customer-based brand equity (CBBE) and employee-based brand equity (EBBE). Design/methodology/approach: The study introduces a multilevel model and collects 925 executive and 1,978 employee responses from 62 upscale hotels in China. Findings: Executive brand identity positively affects employee brand internalization, which leads to positive EBBE. Meanwhile, executive brand identity positively influences the physical facility quality, which leads to positive CBBE. Originality/value: This study considers the tangible (physical facilities) and intangible (employees) elements of hotel services to comprehensively investigate the brand equity formation. By applying multilevel structural equation modeling, the study examines the bidirectional relationship between organizations and employees in the brand value transformation process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2285-2304
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 9 May 2020


  • Brand identity
  • Customer-based brand equity
  • Employee brand internalization
  • Employee-based brand equity
  • Multilevel SEM
  • Physical facility quality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management

Cite this