Freeze-drying of ceftriaxone sodium solution frozen with prefabricated porosity

Wei Wang, Dapeng Hu, Yanqiu Pan, Hengle Li, Guohua Chen

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Initially unsaturated material frozen with prefabricated porosity was prepared to experimentally investigate its effect on freeze-drying of liquid material. Ceftriaxone sodium, a kind of commonly used antibiotic, was selected as the primary solute in an aqueous solution. The liquid nitrogen ice cream-making method was employed to prepare frozen materials with different initial porosities. Results showed that freeze-drying was significantly enhanced with the initially unsaturated frozen material and substantial drying time was saved compared with conventional freeze-drying. Drying time for the unsaturated sample (0.3 of saturation or 0.67 of initial porosity) was more than 20 % shorter than that required for the saturated one (1.0 of saturation without initial porosity). SEM images displayed that the dried products of the unsaturated frozen material had a pierced solid skeleton and uniform pore space with a fine and tenuous structure compared with those of the saturated one. The freezing rate exhibited little influence on the freeze-drying process. Annealing can be moderately beneficial to shortening the drying time and further improving the energy utilization. An appropriate increase in operating temperature was able to enhance the freeze-drying rate while changes in chamber pressure had a negligible effect on the process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)709-716
Number of pages8
JournalCanadian Journal of Chemical Engineering
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019


  • aqueous material
  • drying time
  • initial porosity
  • saturation
  • unsaturated

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering


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