Framing and counter-framing in online collective actions: The case of LGBT protests in a Muslim nation

Jeffry Oktavianus, Brenna Davidson, Guan Lu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Using the context of the #UninstallGojek movement, a protest against Gojek, an Indonesian ride-hailing company whose executive showed support for the LGBT community, this study explores how Twitter facilitates conversations with various stances and actors, and how opposing views employ different framing or counter-framing strategies throughout the movement. The findings from the content analysis of 5,556 tweets reveal that the tweets were mainly posted by ordinary citizens and counter-protesters rather than those who scorned the company. Moreover, the results showcased how each camp utilized different protest framing strategies. In particular, while the protesters primarily used motivational frames to entice individual participation via uninstalling Gojek from their mobile phones, counter-protesters predominantly employed diagnostic frames to identify core concerns about the legitimacy of the protest. There was also a weak presence of prognostic frames as both groups did not articulate solutions for the problems. Furthermore, while the protesters often espoused religious, moral, and cultural values, which became the rallying cry against non-heteronormativity, the counter-protesters refuted and overshadowed these narratives by highlighting the economic benefit of Gojek.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)479-495
Number of pages17
JournalInformation Communication and Society
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • LGBT
  • collective action
  • counter-framing
  • framing
  • social media

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Communication
  • Library and Information Sciences


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