Four-dimensional visualization of construction scheduling and site utilization

Kwok Wing Chau, M. Anson, J. P. Zhang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

123 Citations (Scopus)


Four-dimensional (4D) models link three-dimensional geometrical models with construction schedule data. The visual link between the schedule and construction site conditions is capable of facilitating decision making during both the planning and construction stages. The emphases of these 4D developments have often been placed at the level of construction components. Practical features assisting site management are at times lacking in the following areas: (1) generation of site usage layouts; (2) estimation of quantities of construction materials; and (3) cost evaluation. In order to pinpoint these deficiencies, the objective of this work is to enable visual study of the effects of job progress on the logistics and resource schedules. This paper presents a 4D visualization model that is intended both to help construction managers plan day-to-day activities more efficiently in a broader and more practical site management context and to thereby add to our knowledge and understanding of the relevance of modern computer graphics to the responsibilities of the construction site manager. A brief site trial of the software is described at the conclusion of the paper.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)598-606
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Construction Engineering and Management
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2004


  • Computer aided scheduling
  • Construction management
  • Construction planning
  • Construction sites
  • Graphic methods
  • Three-dimensional models

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Industrial relations
  • Strategy and Management


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