Fluid-Driven High-Performance Bionic Artificial Muscle with Adjustable Muscle Architecture

Disheng Xie, Yujie Su, Xiaolu Li, Jingxun Chen, Xiangqian Shi, Dezhi Liang, Joanne Yip, Jianbin Liu (Corresponding Author), Zheng Li (Corresponding Author), Raymond Kai yu Tong (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


High-performance artificial muscle is always the pursuit of researchers for robotics. Herein, a bionic artificial muscle is reported called “ExoMuscle” mimicking the sarcomere in skeletal muscle with a bio-inspired structure to contract “myofilaments” enabling the artificial muscle to mimic the architecture of muscle such as parallel, fusiform, convergent, and pennation and beyond the performance of skeletal muscle. The reported actuators excel in various aspects compared with skeletal muscle including actuation stress (0.41–0.9 MPa), strain (50%), optimal length, velocity-independence output, power density (10.94 kW kg−1), and efficiency (69.11%). With its own adjustable pennation architecture, it achieves variable actuation stress up to 0.9 MPa meanwhile maintaining high efficiency. Furthermore, ExoMuscle highly conforms to the anatomical complexity of the human body to cooperate with skeletal muscles closely opening the door for bio-robotics, especially wearable robots.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2200370
JournalAdvanced Intelligent Systems
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023


  • artificial muscles
  • bionics
  • skeletal muscle
  • soft actuators

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)


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