Flow stress experimental determination for warm-forming process

Ting Fai Kong, Luen Chow Chan, Tai Chiu Lee

Research output: Chapter in book / Conference proceedingConference article published in proceeding or bookAcademic researchpeer-review


Warm forming is a manufacturing process in which a workpiece is formed into a desired shape at a temperature range between room temperature and material recrystallization temperature. Flow stress is expressed as a function of the strain, strain rate, and temperature. Based on such information, engineers can predict deformation behavior of material in the process. The majority of existing studies on flow stress mainly focus on the deformation and microstructure of alloys at temperature higher than their recrystallization temperatures or at room temperature. Not much works have been presented on flow stress at warm-forming temperatures. This study aimed to determine the flow stress of stainless steel AISI 316L and titanium TA2 using specially modified equipment. Comparing with the conventional method, the equipment developed for uniaxial compression tests has be verified to be an economical and feasible solution to accurately obtain flow stress data at warm-forming temperatures. With average strain rates of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 /s, the stainless steel was tested at degree 600, 650, 700, 750, and 800 °C and the titanium was tested at 500, 550, 600, 650, and 700 °C. Both materials softened at increasing temperatures. The overall flow stress of stainless steel was approximately 40 % more sensitive to the temperature compared to that of titanium. In order to increase the efficiency of forming process, it was suggested that the stainless steel should be formed at a higher warm-forming temperature, i.e. 800 °C. These findings are a practical reference that enables the industry to evaluate various process conditions in warmforming without going through expensive and time consuming tests.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationASME 2011 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, MSEC 2011
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 5 Dec 2011
EventASME 2011 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, MSEC 2011 - Corvallis, OR, United States
Duration: 13 Jun 201117 Jun 2011


ConferenceASME 2011 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, MSEC 2011
CountryUnited States
CityCorvallis, OR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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