Five-year cost-effectiveness of the Patient Empowerment Programme (PEP) for type 2 diabetes mellitus in primary care

Jinxiao Lian, Sarah M. McGhee, Ching So, June Chau, Carlos K.H. Wong, William C.W. Wong, Cindy L.K. Lam

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


This study evaluated the short-term cost-effectiveness of the Patient Empowerment Programme (PEP) for diabetes mellitus (DM) in Hong Kong. Propensity score matching was used to select a matched group of PEP and non-PEP subjects. A societal perspective was adopted to estimate the cost of PEP. Outcome measures were the cumulative incidence of all-cause mortality and diabetic complication over a 5-year follow-up period and the number needed to treat (NNT) to avoid 1 event. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of cost per event avoided was calculated using the PEP cost per subject multiplied by the NNT. The PEP cost per subject from the societal perspective was US$247. There was a significantly lower cumulative incidence of all-cause mortality (2.9% vs 4.6%, P <.001), any DM complication (9.5% vs 10.8%, P =.001) and CVD events (6.8% vs 7.6%, P =.018), in the PEP group. The costs per death from any cause, DM complication or case of CVD avoided were US$14 465, US$19 617 and US$30 796, respectively. The extra amount allocated to managing PEP was small and it appears cost-effective in the short-term as an addition to RAMP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1312-1316
Number of pages5
JournalDiabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Issue number9
Early online date23 Feb 2017
Publication statusPublished - 23 Aug 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • cost-effectiveness
  • primary care
  • type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

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