Finding Species-Specific Extracellular Surface-Facing Proteomes in Toxic Dinoflagellates

Hang Kin Kong, Wing Hin Kevin Patrick Kwok, Pak Yeung Lo, Chun Lap Samuel Lo (Corresponding Author), Pui Kam Tse, Zoe Chan, Kai Yuen Chan

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


As a sequel to our previous report of the existence of species-specific protein/peptide expression profiles (PEPs) acquired by mass spectrometry in some dinoflagellates, we established, with the help of a plasma-membrane-impermeable labeling agent, a surface amphiesmal protein extraction method (SAPE) to label and capture species-specific surface proteins (SSSPs) as well as saxitoxins-producing-species-specific surface proteins (Stx-SSPs) that face the extracellular space (i.e., SSSPsEf and Stx-SSPsEf ). Five selected toxic dinoflagellates, Alexandrium minutum, A. lusitanicum, A. tamarense, Gymnodinium catenatum, and Karenia mikimotoi, were used in this study. Transcrip-tomic databases of these five species were also constructed. With the aid of liquid chromatography linked-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and the transcriptomic databases of these species, extracellularly facing membrane proteomes of the five different species were identified. Within these proteomes, 16 extracellular-facing and functionally significant transport proteins were found. Fur-thermore, 10 SSSPs and 6 Stx-SSPs were identified as amphiesmal proteins but not facing outward to the extracellular environment. We also found SSSPsEf and Stx-SSPsEf in the proteomes. The potential functional correlation of these proteins towards the production of saxitoxins in dinoflagellates and the degree of species specificity were discussed accordingly.
Original languageEnglish
Article number624
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 6 Sept 2021


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