As a sequel to our previous report of the existence of species-specific protein/peptide expression profiles (PEPs) acquired by mass spectrometry in some dinoflagellates, we established, with the help of a plasma-membrane-impermeable labeling agent, a surface amphiesmal protein extraction method (SAPE) to label and capture species-specific surface proteins (SSSPs) as well as saxitoxins-producing-species-specific surface proteins (Stx-SSPs) that face the extracellular space (i.e., SSSPsEf and Stx-SSPsEf ). Five selected toxic dinoflagellates, Alexandrium minutum, A. lusitanicum, A. tamarense, Gymnodinium catenatum, and Karenia mikimotoi, were used in this study. Transcrip-tomic databases of these five species were also constructed. With the aid of liquid chromatography linked-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and the transcriptomic databases of these species, extracellularly facing membrane proteomes of the five different species were identified. Within these proteomes, 16 extracellular-facing and functionally significant transport proteins were found. Fur-thermore, 10 SSSPs and 6 Stx-SSPs were identified as amphiesmal proteins but not facing outward to the extracellular environment. We also found SSSPsEf and Stx-SSPsEf in the proteomes. The potential functional correlation of these proteins towards the production of saxitoxins in dinoflagellates and the degree of species specificity were discussed accordingly.
- Cell surface labeling
- Orthogroup inference
- Toxic dinoflagellates
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis