Field characterization of steady state focused transducers using hydrophones based on Fresnel approximation

Guangzhen Xing, Ping Yang, Pengcheng Hu, Kwok Ho Lam, Longbiao He, Zhonghua Zhang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


This paper is intended to estimate the spatial averaging effects of the hydrophone in field characterization of focused transducers. The analytical model derived was based on Fresnel approximation and enabled modifications of the results for both on-axis and offaxis measurement arrangements. The axial and lateral field distributions in the focal plane measured by the hydrophone were derived for both non-attenuating and attenuating fluids in the model. The spatial averaging effects result in underestimating the absolute acoustic pressure amplitudes, and overestimating the cross-sectional size of the beam directivity pattern in the focal plane. The validity of the Rayleigh integral and the Fresnel approximation for curved transducers were discussed. The results indicate that, for √k (ah+b)/2 ≥ π (where k is the circular wave number, ahis the chord from the center of curved surface to the boundary and b is the effective radius of the hydrophone), the Fresnel approximation remains valid for all locations of the hydrophone in the focused field. Particularly, in the focal plane, the spatial averaging effects of the hydrophone on the directivity pattern of the acoustic beam can be neglected for k b2+4ab/2lf≤ 1 (where a and lf are the effective radius and focal distance of the focused transducer).
Original languageEnglish
Article number065005
JournalMeasurement Science and Technology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 11 Apr 2017


  • field characterization
  • focused transducer
  • Fresnel approximation
  • hydrophone
  • spatial averaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Applied Mathematics

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