Festivalscapes and the visitor experience: An application of the Stimulus Organism Response approach

Zhaoyu Chen, Brian King, Wantanee Suntikul

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a framework that articulates the complete tourist experience with reference to a traditional local event in Macau—A-Ma Festival. The Stimulus Organism Response (S-O-R) framework is deployed to depict the festival experience as a continuous and multistage process. The festivalscape concept provides an elaboration of the festival construct by considering how attendees form enduring attitudes. The authors use the concept as a medium for conveying key festival messages and values from the attendee perspective. They identified a high incidence of spontaneous involvement in the festival. Festival attendance provided respondents with a considerable enhancement of the destination experience.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)758-771
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Tourism Research
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2019


  • A-Ma Festival
  • cultural festival
  • Macau
  • S-O-R Framework
  • spontaneous participation
  • tourist experience

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Transportation
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
  • Nature and Landscape Conservation


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