Feasibility of using reject fly ash in cement-based stabilization/ solidification processes

Chi Sun Poon, X. C. Qiao, C. R. Cheeseman, Z. S. Lin

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Stabilization/solidification (s/s) has been routinely used for the final treatment of hazardous wastes prior to land disposal. These processes involve adding one or more solidifying reagents into the waste to transform it into a monolithic solid with improved structural integrity. Cement-based systems with partial replacement by pulverized fuel ash (PFA) have been widely used to minimize leaching of contaminants from hazardous wastes. The finer fraction of PFA (<45 μm, fine fly ash, fFA), produced by passing the raw ash through a classifying process is commonly used in s/s processes. Low-grade fly ash is rejected (rFA) from the ash classifying process, and is largely unused due to high carbon content and large particle size but represents a significant proportion of PFA. This paper presents experimental results of a study that has assessed the feasibility of using rFA in the cement-based s/s of a synthetic heavy metal waste. Results were compared to mixes containing fFA. The strength results show that cement-based waste forms with rFA replacement are suitable for disposal at landfill and that the addition of heavy metal sludge can increase the degree of hydration of fly ash and decrease the porosity of samples. Adding Ca(OH)2and flue gas desulphurization sludge reduces the retarding effect of heavy metals on strength development. The results of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and Dynamic Leach Test show that rFA can be used in cement-based s/s wastes without compromising performance of the product.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14-23
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Engineering Science
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2006


  • Chemical stabilization and solidification
  • DLT
  • Leaching
  • Progressive TCLP
  • Reject fly ash
  • TCLP

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution


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