Family process and peer influences on substance use by adolescents

Jean Tak Alice Loke Yuen, Yim Wah Mak

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

59 Citations (Scopus)


This study explores the association of family process and peer influences with risk behaviors of adolescents. A total of 805 students were recruited from secondary schools. The results showed that adolescents who have parents who are -authoritarian{norm of matrix} (OR = 1.856) were more likely to smoke. Adolescents who have conflicts with their parents (OR = 1.423) were more likely to drink. Those who have parents who are -permissive{norm of matrix} were less likely to drink (OR = 0.885). Having friends who smoked (OR = 5.446) or drank (OR = 1.894), and friends'invitation to smoke (OR = 10.455) or drink (OR = 11.825) were the dominant contributors to adolescent smoking and drinking. Interventions are needed that recognize the strength of the parent-child relationship, as well as strengthen family functioning through improved interpersonal, parenting, and monitoring skills.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3868-3885
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 27 Aug 2013


  • Adolescents
  • Family process
  • Family structure
  • Parental style
  • Substance use

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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