Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity research in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs) is limited. We investigated sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity prevalence and sociodemographic, bio-clinical and lifestyle factors in LMICs settings. For the purposes of this study, the 10/66 Dementia Research Group follow-up wave information from individuals aged 65 and over in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Peru, Mexico, Puerto Rico, China, was employed and analysed (n = 8.694). Based on indirect population formulas, we calculated body fat percentage (%BF) and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI). Sarcopenia prevalence ranged from 12.4% (Dominican Republic) to 24.6% (rural Peru); sarcopenic obesity prevalence ranged from 3.0% (rural China) to 10.2% (rural Peru). Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for sarcopenia were higher for men 2.82 (2.22–3.57) and those with higher %BF 1.08 (1.07–1.09), whereas higher number of assets was associated with a decreased likelihood 0.93 (0.87–1.00). OR of sarcopenic obesity were higher for men 2.17 (1.70–2.76), those reporting moderate alcohol drinking 1.76 (1.21–2.57), and those with increased number of limiting impairments 1.54 (1.11–2.14). We observed heterogeneity in the prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in the 10/66 settings. We also found a variety of factors to be associated with those. Our results reveal the need for more research among the older population of LMICs.
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