Face and facework in ethnic Chinese shopping-intensive package tours: Dynamics and outcomes

Anna Kwek, Ying Wang, David B. Weaver

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Face is self-reflection through another's gaze, facilitated by face strategies (“facework”) to regulate social dignity. Despite the phenomenal growth of Chinese tourism, the culturally central concepts of face and facework have been investigated mainly as explanations and not as subjects of their own. This study utilises social exchange theory to understand these concepts in a group tour setting, investigating their role in interactions between Chinese diasporic tourists and service intermediaries. Under an interpretive paradigm emphasizing participant observation, findings suggest diverse facework strategies adopted in between- and within-group interactions. The study also identified influencing factors including actor types and background, visibility and persistency of pressure as well as reciprocal compromises.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)396-407
Number of pages12
JournalTourism Management
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • China
  • Diasporic Chinese
  • Face
  • Facework
  • Shopping-intensive package tours
  • Social exchange

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Development
  • Transportation
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
  • Strategy and Management


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