Extraction and optimization of B-spline PBD templates for recognition of connected handwritten digit strings

Zhongkang Lu, Zheru Chi, Wan Chi Siu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Recognition of connected handwritten digit strings is a challenging task due mainly to two problems: poor character segmentation and unreliable isolated character recognition. In this paper, we first present a rational B-spline representation of digit templates based on Pixel-to-Boundary Distance (PBD) maps. We then present a neural network approach to extract B-spline PBD templates and an evolutionary algorithm to optimize these templates. In total, 1,000 templates (100 templates for each of 10 classes) were extracted from and optimized on 10,426 training samples from the NIST Special Database 3. By using these templates, a nearest neighbor classifier can successfully reject 90.7 percent of nondigit patterns while achieving a 96.4 percent correct classification of isolated test digits. When our classifier is applied to the recognition of 4,958 connected handwritten digit strings (4,555 2-digit, 355 3-digit, and 48 4-digit strings) from the NIST Special Database 3 with a dynamic programming approach, it has a correct classification rate of 82.4 percent with a rejection rate of as low as 0.85 percent. Our classifier compares favorably in terms of correct classification rate and robustness with other classifiers that are tested.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)132-139
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2002


  • B-spline fitting
  • Connected handwritten digit recognition
  • Digit templates
  • Evolutionary algorithm
  • Multilayer perception classifier
  • Nearest neighbor classifier
  • Pixel-to-boundary distance map
  • Template optimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Applied Mathematics


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