Extracorporeal shockwave enhanced regeneration of fibrocartilage in a delayed tendon-bone insertion repair model

Dick Ho Kiu Chow, Pui Kit Suen, Le Huang, Wing Hoi Cheung, Kwok Sui Leung, Chun Ng, San-Qiang Shi, Margaret Wan Nar Wong, Ling Qin

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Fibrous tissue is often formed in delayed healing of tendon bone insertion (TBI) instead of fibrocartilage. Extracorporeal shockwave (ESW) provides mechanical cues and upregulates expression of fibrocartilage-related makers and cytokines. We hypothesized that ESW would accelerate fibrocartilage regeneration at the healing interface in a delayed TBI healing model. Partial patellectomy with shielding at the TBI interface was performed on 32 female New Zealand White Rabbits for establishing this delayed TBI healing model. The rabbits were separated into the control and ESW group for evaluations at postoperative week 8 and 12. Shielding was removed at week 4 and a single ESW treatment was applied at week 6. Fibrocartilage regeneration was evaluated histomorphologically and immunohistochemically. Vickers hardness of the TBI matrix was measured by micro-indentation. ESW group showed higher fibrocartilage area, thickness, and proteoglycan deposition than the control in week 8 and 12. ESW increased expression of SOX9 and collagen II significantly in week 8 and 12, respectively. ESW group showed a gradual transition of hardness from bone to fibrocartilage to tendon, and had a higher Vickers hardness than the control group at week 12. In conclusion, ESW enhanced fibrocartilage regeneration at the healing interface in a delayed TBI healing model. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 32:507-514, 2014. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)507-514
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2014


  • enthesis
  • extracorporeal shockwave
  • fibrocartilage
  • tendon bone insertion
  • vickers hardness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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