Extended-focus phase imaging with an interferometric confocal microscope

Richard D. Holmes, Michael Geoffrey Somekh

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


We describe results obtained when a modified differential interferometer is used in a new imaging modality that we call extended-focus phase imaging. This modality is the phase analog of extended-focus imaging used in the confocal microscope. Our technique is applied to the measurement of the differential phase response of minute topographical variations on tilted samples. Results are presented that demonstrate the ability of the technique to produce high lateral resolution phase scans on samples with long-range warp and tilt over a range much greater than the depth of field of the objective lens, thus effectively allowing the depth of field of the phase microscope to be increased indefinitely.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)654-661
Number of pages8
JournalApplied Optics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1994
Externally publishedYes


  • Confocal
  • Differential phase imaging
  • Extended-focus imaging
  • Heterodyne interferometer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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