Ubiquitous human exposure to organophosphorus tri-esters (tri-OPEs) has been reported worldwide. Previous studies investigated the feasibility of using house dust and wristbands to assess human OPE exposure. We hypothesized that these two approaches could differ in relative effectiveness in the characterization of children and adult exposure. In the participants recruited from Guangzhou, South China, urinary levels of major OPE metabolites, including diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) and bis(butoxyethyl) phosphate (BBOEP), were significantly higher in children than their mothers (median 6.6 versus 3.7 ng/mL and 0.11 versus 0.06 ng/mL, respectively). The associations of dust or wristband-associated OPEs with urinary metabolites exhibited chemical-specific patterns, which also differed between children and mothers. Significant and marginally significant associations were determined between dust concentrations of triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), trimethylphenyl phosphate (TMPP), or tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and their metabolites in children urine and between dust tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), TPHP or TMPP and urinary metabolites in mothers. By contrast, wristbands exhibited better efficiency of predicting internal exposure to TDCIPP. While both house dust and wristbands exhibited the potential as a convenient approach for assessing long-term OPE exposure, their feasibility requires better investigations via larger-scale studies and standardized sampling protocols.
- House dust
- Organophosphorus tri-esters
- Urinary metabolites
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis