Exploring the relationship between metacognitive awareness and listening performance with questionnaire data

Christine C.M. Goh, Guangwei Hu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

63 Citations (Scopus)


This study sought to provide a nuanced understanding of the relationship between metacognitive awareness and listening performance by eliciting from 113 English-as-a-second-language (ESL) Chinese learners their metacognitive awareness with regard to knowledge of listening strategies used and perceptions of difficulty and anxiety following a listening lesson. Data were collected through the Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire (MALQ) and an official sample IELTS listening test. Responses were examined for how different aspects of metacognitive awareness represented by the MALQ factors related to listening performance and for individual differences in metacognitive awareness across these factors. The results showed a significant positive relationship between learners' metacognitive awareness scores and listening performance and that their metacognitive awareness accounted for 22% of the variance in listening performance. Analysis of individual factors showed a significant relationship between listening performance and the strategies of directed attention and problem solving as well as an overall moderate-to-low sense of confidence among the participants in the study. It also revealed considerable intrapersonal variation in different aspects of metacognitive awareness. The paper discusses the results as well as the use of the questionnaire as an instrument for eliciting and interpreting learners' metacognitive awareness about listening.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)255-274
Number of pages20
JournalLanguage Awareness
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • comprehension
  • ESL
  • listening
  • metacognition
  • metacognitive awareness
  • strategies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language

Cite this