Exploring the impacts of street layout on the frequency of pedestrian crashes: A micro-level study

Manman Zhu, Haojie Li, N. N. Sze, Gang Ren

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: Pedestrian safety has become a critical issue since walking is increasingly promoted as a sustainable transport mode. However, pedestrians are vulnerable to severe injury and mortality in road crashes. Therefore, it is important to understand the factors that affect the safety of pedestrians. This paper investigates the impacts of street layout on the frequency of pedestrian crashes by examining the interactive pattern of built environment, crossing facilities, and road characteristics. Method: A surrogate exposure variable of pedestrian crashes at the road-segment level is proposed by considering the locations of crossing facilities, distribution of points of interest (POIs), road characteristics, and pedestrian activities. A network-based kernel density technique is used to identify the pedestrian crash risk at the road segment level. Bayesian spatial models based on different exposure variables are employed and compared. Results: The results suggest that models using the surrogate exposure of pedestrian crashes provide better model fit than the ones simply using the density of pedestrians. It is also found that the presence of POIs is related to a higher risk of pedestrian-vehicle crash. In addition, a significantly higher number of pedestrian crashes are found to occur on segments with more bus stops and metro stations. Results also show that the longer the distance between the crossing facilities and road segments, the more pedestrian crashes are observed. Conclusions: The proposed aggregated indicator can provide more efficient exposure and higher prediction accuracy than the density of pedestrians. Besides, the POIs, crossing facilities, and road types were all significantly related to pedestrian crashes. Practical Applications: Our results suggest that the locations of POIs and transport facilities should be planned in a way that can decrease the number of road crossed or guide pedestrians to take safe crossing path.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)91-100
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Safety Research
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • Pedestrian crashes
  • Road safety
  • Road segment
  • Street layout

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality


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