Puzuo Wang, Wei Yao

Research output: Journal article publicationConference articleAcademic researchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Although a number of emerging point-cloud semantic segmentation methods achieve state-of-the-art results, acquiring fully interpreted training data is a time-consuming and labor-intensive task. To reduce the burden of data annotation in training, semiand weakly supervised methods are proposed to address the situation of limited supervisory sources, achieving competitive results compared to full supervision schemes. However, given a fixed budget, the effective annotation of a few points is typically ignored, which is referred to as weak-label initialization in this study. In practice, random selection is typically adopted by default. Because weakly supervised methods largely rely on semantic information supplied by initial weak labels, this studies explores the influence of different weak-label initialization strategies. In addition to random initialization, we propose a feature-constrained framework to guide the selection of initial weak labels. A feature space of point clouds is first constructed by feature extraction and embedding. Then, we develop a density-biased strategy to annotate points by locating highly dense clustered regions, as significant information distinguishing semantic classes is often concentrated in such areas. Our method outperforms random initialization on ISPRS Vaihingen 3D data when only using sparse weak labels, achieving an overall accuracy of 78.06% using 1‰ of labels. However, only a minor increase is observed on the LASDU dataset. Additionally, the results show that initialization with category-wise uniformly distributed weak labels is more effective when incorporated using a weakly supervised method.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to) 151-158
Number of pages8
JournalISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 17 May 2022


  • Airborne Laser Scanning
  • Data annotation
  • Feature extraction
  • Point clouds
  • Semantic segmentation
  • Weakly supervised learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Instrumentation
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)


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