Experimental study on the combined effects of patch density and elongation on wake structure behind a rectangular porous patch

Yuan Heng Zhang, Huan Feng Duan, Xu Feng Yan, Alessandro Stocchino

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


This paper presents an experimental study on how both variable solid volume fractions and aspect ratios (length/width) of a centre-channel rectangular porous patch under aligned configuration of rigid and emergent stems impact the flow behaviour and wake structure. This study forms an essential extension to the existing fundamentals and knowledge on this topic. Through rigorous experimental tests by velocity measurement and dye visualization, the aspect ratio, rarely addressed before, is confirmed to play a critical role. Vortex street, unable to be triggered under a low solid volume fraction, however, can be generated by elongating the patch (increasing the aspect ratio). The key reason is that patch elongation promotes the generation of the wake vortex street by producing a relatively high transverse velocity gradient in the wake region. Meanwhile, Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex streets are triggered along the two patch lateral edges, re-increasing the in-patch velocity and imposing contributions to the wake vortex streets generation. By scaling the characteristic velocity (at the wake vortex initiation position and patch trailing edge) and solid volume fraction with the patch aspect ratio, three non-dimensional threshold maps can be established to express the combined effects of the solid volume fraction and aspect ratio on the initiation of the wake vortex street. They could be alternatively used for theoretical analysis and implementation on wake formation and structure subject to parameter availability.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA36
JournalJournal of Fluid Mechanics
Publication statusPublished - 25 Mar 2023


  • channel flow
  • vortex interactions
  • vortex streets

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics


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