Experimental investigation of carbon steel and stainless steel bolted connections at different strain rates

Y. Cai, Ben Young

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Copyright © 2019 Techno-Press, Ltd.A total of 36 carbon steel and stainless steel bolted connections subjected to shear loading at different strain rates was experimentally investigated. The connection specimens were fabricated from carbon steel grades 1.20 mm G500 and 1.90 mm G450, as well as cold-formed stainless steel types EN 1.4301 and EN 1.4162 with nominal thickness 1.50 mm. The connection tests were conducted by displacement control test method. The strain rates of 10 mm/min and 20 mm/min were used. Structural behaviour of the connection specimens tested at different strain rates was investigated in terms of ultimate load, elongation corresponding to ultimate load and failure mode. Generally, it is shown that the higher strain rate on the bolted connection specimens, the higher ultimate load was obtained. The ultimate loads were averagely 2-6% higher, while the corresponding elongations were averagely 8-9% higher for the test results obtained from the strain rate of 20 mm/min compared with those obtained from the lower strain rates (1.0 mm/min for carbon steel and 1.5 mm/min for stainless steel). The connection specimens were generally failed in plate bearing of the carbon steel and stainless steel. It is shown that increasing the strain rate up to 20 mm/min generally has no effect on the bearing failure mode of the carbon steel and stainless steel bolted connections. The test strengths and failure modes were compared with the results predicted by the bolted connection design rules in international design specifications, including the Australian/New Zealand Standard (AS/NZS4600 2018), Eurocode 3 - Part 1.3 (EC3-1.3 2006) and North American Specification (AISI S100 2016) for cold-formed carbon steel structures as well as the American Specification (ASCE 2002), AS/NZS4673 (2001) and Eurocode 3 - Part 1.4 (EC3-1.4 2015) for stainless steel structures. It is shown that the AS/NZS4600 (2018), EC3-1.3 (2006) and AISI S100 (2016) generally provide conservative predictions for the carbon steel bolted connections. Both the ASCE (2002) and the EC3-1.4 (2015) provide conservative predictions for the stainless steel bolted connections. The EC3-1.3 (2006) generally provided more accurate predictions of failure mode for carbon steel bolted connections than the AS/NZS4600 (2018) and the AISI S100 (2016). The failure modes of stainless steel bolted connections predicted by the EC3-1.4 (2015) are more consistent with the test results compared with those predicted by the ASCE (2002).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)551-565
Number of pages15
JournalSteel and Composite Structures
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • Bearing failure
  • Bolted connection
  • Carbon steel
  • Experimental investigation
  • Stainless steel
  • Strain rate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Metals and Alloys

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