Expectation, motivation, and attitude: A tourist behavioral model

Cathy Hui-chun Hsu, Liping A. Cai, Mimi Li

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

217 Citations (Scopus)


This study focuses on the previsit stage of tourists by modeling the behavioral process incorporating expectation, motivation, and attitude in the context of Chinese outbound travelers. An expectation, motivation, and attitude (EMA) model is proposed based on a comprehensive literature review. An instrument is developed based on previous tourism and marketing studies as well as focus groups to measure the variables in the EMA model. Data are collected from 1,514 Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou residents. Results of the study confirm the proposed relations that expectation of visiting an outbound destination has a direct effect on motivation to visit the destination; motivation has a direct effect on attitude toward visiting the destination; expectation of visiting the outbound destination has a direct effect on attitude toward visiting the destination; and motivation has a mediating effect on the relationship between expectation and attitude. Practical and theoretical contributions are discussed, with future research suggested.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)282-296
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Travel Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2010


  • Attitude
  • Behavioral model
  • Chinese tourists
  • Expectation
  • Motivation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Transportation
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management

Cite this