Expectation and degrees of freedom for sample variance

Xiaofeng Steven Liu, Hyejo Hailey Shin

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Computer simulation can be used to demonstrate why the unbiased sample variance uses degrees of freedom (n−1). This is first demonstrated for sampling from a normal random variable, and in additional simulations for some selected non-normal random variables, namely, chi-square and binomial.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)54-57
Number of pages4
JournalTeaching Statistics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2020
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Statistics and Probability
  • Education


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