Evaluation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound in the assessment of thyroid volume of the indo-pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus)

Brian C W Kot, Tin Cheung Ying, Fiona M. Brook, Reimi E. Kinoshita

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The assessment of thyroid volume plays an indispensable role in the diagnosis and management of different thyroid diseases. The present study evaluates the accuracy of dolphin thyroid volume measurement as determined by four two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound methods (AD), with a standard of reference using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. The measurement accuracy for different recognized thyroid configuration is also evaluated. Inter- and intraoperator variability of the measurement methods was determined. Thyroid ultrasound examinations were conducted in 16 apparently healthy Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) with 2D and 3D ultrasound under identical scanning conditions. All 2D ultrasound measurement methods yielded high accuracies (79.981.3%) when compared with the 3D ultrasound measurement, and had high measurement reproducibility (77.686.2%) and repeatability (78.199.7%). For 2D ultrasound measurements, Methods A and B were more accurate and reliable than Methods C and D, regardless of thyroid configuration. Ultrasound is useful in the measurement of thyroid volume in bottlenose dolphins. For the first time, a reliable ultrasound scanning protocol for measuring dolphin thyroid volume was developed, which provides a means to establish a normative reference for the diagnosis of thyroid pathologies and to monitor the thyroid volume during the course of treatment in living dolphins.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)33-49
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2012


  • 3D ultrasound
  • Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin
  • thyroid volume measurement
  • Tursiops aduncus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)

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