Evaluation of the accuracy and reliability of two 3-dimensional sonography methods in volume measurement of small structures: An in vitro phantom study

B. C W Kot, D. M H Sin, Tin Cheung Ying

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose. To evaluate the accuracy and reliability of two 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging and measurement techniques in volume measurements using custom-made phantoms. Methods. A total of 20 phantoms with irregular-shaped test objects of known volume (2-9.7 ml) were constructed. The phantoms were scanned using an automated mechanical 3D sonography technique and a free-hand 3D sonography technique. The volumes of the test objects were measured with "parallel planes" and "rotating planes" techniques, respectively. The measured volumes were compared with the actual volumes of the test objects. To evaluate inter- and intraoperator measurement variability, the phantoms were scanned twice by 2 different operators. Results. Both the automated mechanical and the free-hand 3D sonography techniques were accurate and reliabile. Automated mechanical 3D sonography with the parallel planes technique (accuracy, 81.5-83.4%; reproducibility, 91.1%; repeatability, 98.8-99.1%) was slightly more accurate and reliable than the free-hand rotating planes technique (accuracy, 74.7-84.2%; reproducibility, 88.4%; repeatability, 97.3-98%), but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Both the automated and freehand volume measurement techniques evaluated in this study are accurate and reliable.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)82-88
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Clinical Ultrasound
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2009


  • Automated mechanical 3D ultrasound
  • Free-hand 3D ultrasound
  • Manual planimetry volume measurement
  • Phantoms
  • Test objects

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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