Evaluation of a virtual reality-based memory training programme for Hong Kong Chinese older adults with questionable dementia: A pilot study

Wai Kwong Man, Jenny C.C. Chung, Grace Y.Y. Lee

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

63 Citations (Scopus)


Background Older adults with questionable dementia are at risk of progressing to dementia, and early intervention is considered important. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a virtual reality (VR)-based memory training for older adults with questionable dementia. Methods A pre-test and post-test design was adopted. Twenty and 24 older adults with questionable dementia were randomly assigned to a VR-based and a therapist-led memory training group, respectively. Primary outcome measures included the Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire and Fuld Object Memory Evaluation. Results Both groups demonstrated positive training effects, with the VR group showing greater improvement in objective memory performance and the non-VR group showing better subjective memory subtest results in the Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire. Conclusion The use of VR seems to be acceptable for older adults with questionable dementia. Further study on the effect of educational background and memory training modality (visual, auditory) is warranted.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)513-520
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2012


  • memory training
  • older adults
  • questionable dementia
  • virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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