Evaluating the wording effect and psychometric properties of the kid-kindl: Using the multitrait-multimethod approach

Chung-Ying Lin, Wei Ming Luh, Chung Ping Cheng, Ai Lun Yang, Hui Ing Ma

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


Quality of life (QoL) instruments for children provide an important health index for school healthcare professionals to understand students' overall health status. We investigated the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the widely used Kid-KINDL and reported on the wording effect of its positively and negatively worded items. A convenience sample of 8- to 12-year-old students (n = 443) completed the Kid-KINDL; 89 of them completed it again 7-14 days later. The internal consistency was satisfactory in the total score (α = .87) and two subscales (α = .704 [emotional] and .853 [self-esteem]), but unsatisfactory for the other subscales (α = .578 [physical], .533 [friend], .520 [family], and .560 [school]). Test-retest reliability was acceptable in all the subscales and the total score (ICC ≥ .6). A multitrait-multimethod design using several confirmatory factor analysis models confirmed the construct validity of the Kid-KINDL when the wording effect was taken into account (GFI = .912-.934, TLI = .889-.930, CFI = 0.910-.947, IFI = 0.912-0.948, RMSEA = 0.045-0.057, SRMR = .045-.056). We conclude that the Kid-KINDL is a reliable and valid tool for teachers to use to evaluate students' QoL if the total score is used.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)100-109
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Psychological Assessment
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Children
  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Psychometric properties
  • Quality of life
  • Wording effect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology

Cite this