Evaluating the similarity degree of digital watermarks

Li Li, Liuzhao Ruan, Dapeng Zhang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


The popular formulas currently used to evaluate the similarity of digital watermarks have serious drawbacks: when the similarity degree is 1, the watermarks are not unique. This paper firstly analyze the drawbacks in the popular formulas. Then proposes a new formula similarity degree, which eliminates the shortcomings of the existing formulas and overcome the lack of uniqueness in theory. From the experiment results the new formula not only does well in evaluating the watermark's similarity degree, also is in good accordance with visual perception.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1417-1422
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Information and Computational Science
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2010


  • Digital watermarking
  • Normalized correlation
  • Similarity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics
  • Library and Information Sciences


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