The mass concentrations and major chemical components of PM2.5 in Jinan, Shandong Province, China from Dec. 2004 to Oct. 2008 were analyzed using backward trajectory cluster analysis in conjunction with the potential source contribution function (PSCF) model. The aim of this work was to study the inter-annual variations of mass concentrations and major chemical components of PM2.5, evaluate the air mass flow patterns and identify the potential local and regional source areas that contributed to secondary sulfate and nitrate in PM2.5 in Jinan. The annual mean concentrations of PM2.5, sulfate and nitrate in 2004-2008 were almost the highest in the world. The most significant air parcels contributing to the highest mean concentrations of mass and secondary ions in PM2.5 originated from the industrialized areas of Shandong Province. Clusters with a lower ratio of NO3-/SO42- in PM2.5 originated from the Yellow Sea, while a higher ratio was observed in the clusters passing through Beijing and Tianjin. PSCF modeling indicated that the provinces of Shandong, Henan, Jiangsu, Anhui and the Yellow Sea were the major potential source regions for sulfate, in agreement with the cluster analysis results. Regional and long-range transport of NH4NO3 played an important role in the nitrate concentration of Jinan. By comparing the distributions of secondary sulfate and nitrate over three years, enhanced emission control management before and during the 29th Olympic Games led to a discernible decrease in source contributions from Beijing and its environs in 2007-2008.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law