Estimating the total exposure to air pollutants for different population age groups in Hong Kong

Chi Kwan Chau, E. Y. Tu, D. W.T. Chan, J. Burnett

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

109 Citations (Scopus)


Given that Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated cities in the world, the exposure of the Hong Kong people is one of the interesting research areas. In this study, an indirect approach was used to estimate the exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), respiratory dust (PM10) and carbon monoxide (CO) pollutants experienced by different age groups of people in Hong Kong. The average concentrations of the 20 major microenvironments obtained from our measurement survey data, together with the people activity pattern data obtained from 7-day recall questionnaires, were used to predict frequency distributions to exposure assessment. Our results showed that Hong Kong people spent more than 86% of their time indoors. Homes were shown to be the one of the major exposure sites to NO2, CO and PM10for all age groups. Our results also indicate that the 24-h NO2exposure for individuals, irrespective of age, spending more than 2 h in commuting daily, was observed to be exceeding the 24-h NO2exposure standards. This study was one of the pioneering studies with valuable contribution for modeling the estimates of exposures to NO2, PM10and CO of different age groups in Hong Kong.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)617-630
Number of pages14
JournalEnvironment international
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2002


  • Exposure measurement
  • Hong Kong
  • Time activity pattern

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)


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