Establishing carbon footprints for modular integrated construction logistics using cyber-physical internet routers

Chung lam Ng, Ming Li, Ray Y. Zhong, Xinye Qu, George Q. Huang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Modular integrated construction (MiC) logistics is controversial regarding carbon emissions due to the increased weight of shipped modules. Logistics companies prefer efficiency-oriented and profit-oriented demand, which leads to limited carbon reduction. Relying on road transport intensifies these challenges, highlighting the need for improved strategies to mitigate environmental impacts. This study proposes adopting the concept of the cyber-physical internet (CPI) to digitalize carbon footprints in MiC logistics. A CPI carbon footprint framework is established by routers in MiC logistics. The unique characteristics of MiC and real-world instances are integrated into the proposed routing protocol. A routing algorithm for carbon emissions is improved by considering heavy trucks’ speed and loading capacities. Simulation studies are conducted using real-world data and databases to investigate the impacts of loading capacity and average speed on carbon footprints. This study contributes to the theoretical understanding and offers practical guidelines for effectively reducing carbon emissions in MiC logistics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104259
Number of pages18
JournalTransportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2024


  • Carbon footprint
  • Cyber-physical internet
  • MiC logistics
  • Router
  • Routing table

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Transportation
  • General Environmental Science


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