Environmental factors and refractive error in Chinese schoolchildren

Keng Hung Maurice Yap, M. Wu, SH Wang, FL Lee, ZM Liu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


We surveyed and assessed 2,323 schoolchildren aged seven to 17 years from four schools in China, two in the city of Tianjin and the other two in a neighbouring rural village, Ban Chau, to investigate the prevalence of refractive error and its relationship with environmental factors. Every child from each of the participating classes was recruited in this study to avoid self‐selection. A questionnaire was issued which queried some aspects of the child's visual habits and home. Refraction was canied out using the Canon R‐22 autorefractor. The degree and frequency of myopia in these children increased almost linearly from age seven to 17 years. There was little difference between the urban and rural groups. Of the factors explored, the number of hours spent on near work showed the best correlation with the degree of myopia, albeit only weakly.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8-14
Number of pages7
JournalClinical and Experimental Optometry
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1994
Externally publishedYes


  • environmental factors
  • refractive error
  • schoolchildren
  • urban and rural

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Optometry


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