Energy planning of renewable applications in high-rise residential buildings integrating battery and hydrogen vehicle storage

Jia Liu, Sunliang Cao, Xi Chen, Hongxing Yang, Jinqing Peng

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

57 Citations (Scopus)


This study presents a robust energy planning approach for hybrid photovoltaic and wind energy systems with battery and hydrogen vehicle storage technologies in a typical high-rise residential building considering different vehicle-to-building schedules. Multiple design criteria including the supply performance, grid integration and lifetime net present value are adopted to size the hybrid system and select the optimal energy management strategy. Four decision-making strategies are further applied to search the final optimum solution for major stakeholders with different preferences. The study result indicates that the energy management strategy with battery storage prior to hydrogen storage is suitable for hybrid systems with large photovoltaic, wind and battery installation capacities to achieve the optimum supply-grid integration-economy performance. The energy management strategy with hydrogen storage prior to battery storage has a wider applicability, and this strategy should be selected when focusing on the supply-grid integration or supply-economy performance. The annual average self-consumption ratio, load cover ratio and hydrogen system efficiency are about 84.79%, 76.11% and 77.06% respectively in the end-user priority case. The annual absolute net grid exchange is about 4.55 MWh in the transmission system operator priority case. The lifetime net present value of the investor priority case is about 3.64 million US$, 29.88% less than the equivalent priority case. Final optimum solutions show positive environmental impacts with negative annual carbon emissions. Such a techno-economic-environmental feasibility analysis of the hybrid system provides major stakeholders with valuable energy planning references to promote renewable applications in urban areas.

Original languageEnglish
Article number116038
JournalApplied Energy
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2021


  • Battery storage
  • Energy planning
  • High-rise building
  • Hydrogen vehicle
  • Solar photovoltaic
  • Wind turbine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • Energy(all)
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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