Energy efficiency of elevated water supply tanks for high-rise buildings

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36 Citations (Scopus)


High-rise housing, a trend in densely populated cities around the world, increases the energy use for water supply and corresponding greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents an energy efficiency evaluation measure for water supply system designs and a mathematical model for optimizing pumping energy through the arrangement of water tanks in a building. To demonstrate that the model is useful for establishing optimal design solutions that integrate energy consumption into urban water planning processes which cater to various building demands and usage patterns, measurement data of 22 high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong are employed. The results show the energy efficiency of many existing high-rise water supply systems is about 0.25 and can be improved to 0.26-0.37 via water storage tank relocations. The corresponding annual electricity that can be saved is 160-410. TJ, a 0.1-0.3% of the total annual electricity consumption in Hong Kong.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)685-691
Number of pages7
JournalApplied Energy
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013


  • Building
  • Energy efficiency
  • Storage tank location
  • Water consumption
  • Water supply

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • General Energy


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