Empirical study to determine fragmentation of construction projects

Ali Mohammed Alashwal, Sik Wah Fong

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


Fragmentation is a well-known problem in the construction field; however, the literature shows a lack of a precise definition and appropriate measurement of this notion. The purpose of this paper is to determine indicators of fragmentation in construction projects using a second-order formative measurement model. The data were collected using a questionnaire survey from big building projects in Malaysia. Three procedures were used to analyze the data. First, we used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine fragmentation constructs and develop the hierarchical model. Second, partial least squares-path modeling (PLS-PM) was conducted to analyze the hierarchical model and validate the constructs. Lastly, a multicollinearity test was performed to validate the formative variables. The results indicated four new constructs of fragmentation, namely: integration, spanning knowledge across boundaries, barriers, and decoupling of diversity. This paper contributes to the development of a new definition of fragmentation and shows how it can be measured empirically. The new model paves the way to determine fragmentation's influence on other factors and the development of its theory in construction projects. The influence of fragmentation on project performance, for instance, can now be determined more accurately using this model.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4015016
JournalJournal of Construction Engineering and Management
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015


  • Barriers
  • Information
  • Integration
  • Organizational issues
  • Partial least squares-path modeling (PLS-PM)
  • Spanning knowledge
  • Type II hierarchical model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Industrial relations
  • Strategy and Management


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