Electrospray ionization on solid substrates

P.K. So, B. Hu, Zhongping Yao

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic research


Development of electrospray ionization on solid substrates (solid-substrate ESI) avoids the clogging problem encountered in conventional capillary-based ESI, allows more convenient sampling and permits new applications. So far, solid-substrate ESI with various materials, e.g., metals, paper, wood, fibers and biological tissue, has been developed, and applications ranging from analysis of pure compounds to complex mixtures as well as in vivo study were demonstrated. Particularly, the capability of solid-substrate ESI in direct analysis of complex samples, e.g., biological fluids and foods, has significantly facilitated mass spectrometric analysis in real-life applications and led to increasingly important roles of these techniques nowadays. In this review, various solid-substrate ESI techniques and their applications are summarized and the prospects in this field are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalMass Spectrometry
Issue numberspecial issue
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Electrospray ionization
  • Solid substrate
  • Ambient ionization
  • Direct analysis
  • In vivo study


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