Electrically "long" Dipoles in a Collocated/Orthogonal Triad - For Direction Finding and Polarization Estimation

Kainam Thomas Wong, Yang Song, Caleb J. Fulton, Salman Khan, Wai Yip Tam

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)


In dipole-antenna array signal-processing algorithm development, research has focused on "short dipoles" whose physical length (L) is under (1/10) of a wavelength λ. Such electrically "short" dipoles have very small input impedances, rendering such "short" dipoles to be inefficient radiators. Practical dipoles, with an electrical length of (L/λ) ϵ [0.1,1] , have notably larger input impedance, hence making them better radiators. Of such practical dipoles, this paper investigates their use for azimuth-polar direction finding and for polarization estimation. This paper will first present the measurement model (i.e., array manifold) of a triad of such practical dipoles, collocated in space and orthogonally oriented. This paper will then develop the corresponding closed-form algorithms to estimate the bivariate azimuth-elevation direction-of-arrival or the bivariate polarization. Such closed-form algorithms previously have been unavailable in the existing literature for such a triad of electrically "long" dipoles of pragmatic radiation efficiency.
Original languageEnglish
Article number8023893
Pages (from-to)6057-6067
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2017


  • Antenna arrays
  • array signal processing
  • dipole antennas
  • dipole arrays
  • direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation
  • directive antennas
  • parameter estimation
  • polarization
  • polarization estimation
  • radio direction finding
  • signal processing antennas

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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